Introduction to the Boeing 767
The Boeing 767 is a low wing, twin-engined, long range jet airliner which was Boeings’ first wide-body twin-jet. This was Boeing’s first new model after the introduction of the Boeing 747 and was designed to take over the market that was serviced by the ageing Boeing 707 and Douglas DC8. Through its lifetime the 767 also filled the space left over by the phasing out of the Lockheed L1011 Tri-star as well as the McDonnell Douglas DC-10.
The Boeing 767 was developed in parallel with the Boeing 757. Where the Boeing 767 was a wide body aircraft, yet not as wide as the Boeing 747, with a standard economy layout of 7 abreast as opposed to the 747’s 10 abreast. The 757 was a narrow body, much like the Boeing 707 with 6 abreast. The 767 and 757 shared much of the same design and technology which was a huge saving for Boeing.
One of the new technologies was the introduction of the glass cockpit
One of the new technologies was the introduction of the glass cockpit. For the first time, computer screens started to replace or at least duplicate many of the flight, navigation and system status dials. There were the obvious advantages of weight saving as well as fail-safe systems. However, for the first time, a large airliner was produced that only required a crew of two. Even the first Airbus A300, the first model produced by Airbus Industrie started life with a 3 crew cockpit. Some airlines, like Ansett Australia, still opted for a 3 crew cockpit, due to union pressure.
The Boeing 767 was produced in three difference fuselage lengths as well as short and long range versions of these which can be seen in the specs table below.
The first aircraft produced was the 767 200 variant which went into service in 1982. This was still the early days for large twin-engined jet airliners and there were ETOPS (Extended-range Twin-engine Operational Performance Standards) restrictions in place which prevented these aircraft from being flown initially more than 90 minutes from a serviceable airfield. This was gradually stepped up through the 1980s as engines became more reliable, with 767s equipped with General Electric CF-6 engines being granted ETOPS180 approval in 1989.
This meant that the 767 could now fly up to 180 minutes from the nearest airfield
This meant that the 767 could now fly up to 180 minutes from the nearest airfield and enabled trans North Atlantic flights. By 1993 all engine options for the 767 were granted ETOPS180.
Initially, the 767 was used on domestic and trans continental flights (USA). With the extended ETOPS approval, the door was now open to use this mid-range aircraft on routes like the North Atlantic, a route previously reserved for aircraft with more than 2 engines. This was great for the airlines who could now schedule aircraft with varying capacity over this heavy traffic route.
The Boeing 767 has been in production now for 33 years and was planned to be phased out and replaced by the very popular Boeing 787 Dreamliner. The 787 suffered many delays and some airlines chose to take the Boeing 767 300ER in its place as they could no longer wait. Many 767s that were for due retirement in favour of the 787 were kept in service and airlines had to implement extensive D check maintenance to ensure these aircraft remained flight worthy and free of corrosion.
Boeing also offered a retrofit of winglets in 2008.
Boeing also offered a retrofit of winglets in 2008. These 3.35 metre wing extensions enabled a 6.5 percent fuel saving and several airlines took this option up to extend the life of their 767 fleets. Boeing, seeing this renewed interest in the 767, proposed to the market an updated version of the 767 200 and 767 300F. The reception was very luke warm and the idea was soon shelved.
In February 2011 a 767 300ER that was delivered to all Nippon Airways of Japan was the 1,000th 767 to be delivered. Boeing held the record of having produced the only too wide-bodied jets to have reached this milestone. It also signified a change as 767 production was moved to a smaller part of the Everett factory to make room for the Boeing 787 Dreamliner assembly line. Orders for the 767 passenger version started to wane, however, the 767 cargo version was still in demand as is the air force tanker version.
Let’s have a look at the timeline for the Boeing 767.
|1972||Development study begins on the 7X7 which would replace the Boeing 707|
|1976||A twin jet layout was decided upon, much like the Airbus’ A300.|
|February 1978||The 767 designator was decided upon and three variants planned. The 767-100 (190 seats), 767-200 (210 seats) and the 767-MR/LR (Medium Range / Long Range). The 767-MR/LR was proposed as a tri-jet to get around ETOPS restrictions. This was later redesignated the 777 with the tri-jet configuration dropped. The 767-100 was dropped as its capacity was too close to the 757.|
|14 July 1978||The 767 was officially launched when United Airlines ordered 30 x 767-200s, soon followed by American Airlines and Delta Airlines.|
|6 July 1979||Assembly begins of the first 767.|
|04 August 1981||The first 767 prototype, a 767- 200 rolled out of the factory with registration number N767BA. By this time Boeing had 173 firm orders for the type.|
|26 September 1981||The first Boeing 767 makes its maiden flight.|
|July 1982||The Boeing 767-200 powered by Pratt and Whitney JT9D engines received type certification from both the FAA (Federal Aviation Administration (US)) and the CAA (Civil Aviation Authority (UK)).|
|19 August 1982||The first Boeing 767-200 is delivered to United Airlines.|
|September 1982||Type certification was given to the 767-200 powered by General Electric CF-6|
|8 September 1982||United Airlines puts their first 767-200 into service on the Chicago to Denver route.|
|December 1982||Ethiopian Airlines launches the order book for the extended range version, the 767-200ER|
|27 March 1984||El Al Israeli Airlines put the first 767-200ER into service.|
|May 1985||TWA (Trans World Airlines) was the first airline to receive ETOPS 120 approval for 767 operations over water.|
|September 1983||Japan Airlines places the first Boeing 767 300 order.|
|30 January 1986||Maiden flight of the Boeing 767 300.|
|20 October 1986||The 767 300 enters service with Japan Airlines.|
|9 December 1986||Maiden flight of the Boeing 767 300ER (Extended Range)|
|March 1987||First firm order for the 767 300ER by American Airlines|
|3 March 1988||The first 767 300ER goes into service with American Airlines.|
|17 April 1988||A long distance record flown by a twin-engined airliner was set by a 767 200ER when an Air Mauritius aeroplane flew non stop from Halifax, Nova Scotia to Port Louis, Mauritius, a distance of 16,162km.|
|February 1990||The first 767, a 767 300 was delivered using Rolls Royce RB211 engines. This was delivered to British Airways.|
|January 1993||An order from UPS(United Parcel Service) Airlines launched the 767 300F freighter version.|
|November 1993||Japan ordered the first military version, the E 767. This was an early warning platform based on the 767-200ER|
|16 October 1995||The first 767 300F freighter goes into service with UPS Airlines.|
|November 1995||Boeing announced plans for a third stretch of the 767, the 767 400X with a 12 percent increase in capacity, greater wing span and updated flight cockpit.|
|March 1997||Delta opened the order book for the 767 400ER which would replace its fleet of Lockheed L1011s.|
|October 1997||Continental Airlines ordered the 767 400ER to replace its fleet of McDonnell Douglas DC-10s.|
|9 October 1999||The Boeing 767 400ER makes its maiden flight.|
|14 September 2000||The Boeing 767 400ER goes into service for the first time with Continental Airlines.|
|October 2002||The KC 767 a military tanker / transport derivative of the 767 200ER was launched with an order from the Italian Airforce.|
|2 February 2011||The 1,000th 767 was rolled out of the factory. It was a 767 300ER destined for All Nippon Airways and was the 91st of the 767 300ER type. It is only the second wide body aircraft to have reached this milestone, the other being the Boeing 747.|
|24 February 2011||The U.S. Airforce orders 179 KC 767 Advanced Tankers which ensures production can be maintained beyond 2013.|
|December 2011||FedEx orders 27 767 300Fs to replace their DC10 fleet.|
|June 2012||FedEx orders a further 19 767 300F freighters|
|21 July 2015||FedEx orders 50 767 300ERs with options for another 50. The largest such order will see deliveries come between 2018 and 2023.|
Boeing 767 Specs
|Variant||767 200||767 200ER||767 300||767 300ER||767 300F||767 400ER|
|Maiden Flight||26 Sep 1981||06 Mar 1984||30 Jan 1986||09 Dec 1986||–||09 Oct 1999|
|Launch Airline||United Airlines||El Al||Japan Airlines||American Airlines||UPS Airlines||Continental Airlines|
|Power Plant||767 200||767 200ER||767 300||767 300ER||767 300F||767 400ER|
|Model|| -P&W JT9D-7R4 or PW4052|
-GE CF6-80A, A2, or C2
| -P&W PW4052, or 4056|
-RR RB211-524G or H
|–P&W JT9D-7R4 or PW4052|
-GE CF6-80A, or C2
|-P&W PW4056, 4060, or 4062 -GE CF6-80C2|
-RR RB211-524G or H
| -P&W PW4062|
|Dimensions||767 200||767 200ER||767 300||767 300ER||767 300F||767 400ER|
|Fuselage Length||48.5 metres / 159 feet 2 inch||54.9 metres / 180 feet 3 inch||61.4 metres / 201 feet 4 in.|
|Fuselage Height||5.41 metres / 17 feet 9 inches|
|Fuselage Width (Outside)||5.03 metres / 16 feet 6 inches|
|Cabin Width||4.72 metres / 15 feet 6 inches|
|Wing||767 200||767 200ER||767 300||767 300ER||767 300F||767 400ER|
|Wing Span||47.6 metres / 156 feet 1 inch||51.9 metres / 170 feet 4 in|
|Wing Area||283.3 square metres / 3,050 square feet||290.7 sq mtr/ 3,130 sq ft|
|Sweep Back||31.5 degrees|
|Under Carriage||767 200||767 200ER||767 300||767 300ER||767 300F||767 400ER|
|Number of Nosewheels||2||2||2||2||2||2|
|Number of Mainwheels||8||8||8||8||8||8|
|Cabin||767 200||767 200ER||767 300||767 300ER||767 300F||767 400ER|
|Seating all economy class||290||351||N/A||375|
|Seating typical 3 class||181||218||N/A||245|
|Seats Abreast (economy)||7 in 2-3-2 configuration||N/A||7 in 2-3-2 configuration|
|Weights||767 200||767 200ER||767 300||767 300ER||767 300F||767 400ER|
|Operating Empty Weight||80,130 kg (176,650 lb)||82,380 kg (181,610 lb)||86,070 kg (189,750 lb)||90,010 kg (198,440 lb)||86,180 kg (190,000 lb)||103,870 kg (229,000 lb)|
|Max. Takeoff Weight||142,880 kg (315,000 lb)||179,170 kg (395,000 lb)||158,760 kg (350,000 lb)||186,880 kg (412,000 lb)||186,880 kg (412,000 lb)||204,120 kg (450,000 lb)|
|Fuel||767 200||767 200ER||767 300||767 300ER||767 300F||767 400ER|
|Capacity||81.4 Cu Mtr / 2,875 Cu Ft 22 LD2 Containers||106.8 Cu Mtr / 3,770 Cu Ft 30 LD2 Containers||438 Cu Mtr / 15,469 Cu Ft. 30 LD2s + 24 pallets||129.6 Cu Mtr / 4,580 Cu Ft 38 LD2 Containers|
|Take off distance with MTOW at sea level (ISA)||1,768 metres (5,800 feet)||2,530 metres (8,300 feet)||2,410 metres (7,900 feet)||2,530 metres (8,300 feet)||2,621 metres (8,600 feet)||3,109 metres (10,200 feet)|
|Normal Cruise Speed||Mach 0.80 (470 knots, 851 km/h at 35,000 ft cruise altitude)|
|Maximum Cruise Speed||Mach 0.86 (493 knots, 913 km/h at 35,000 ft cruise altitude)|
|Range with Max Payload||3,850 nm / 7,130 km||6,385 nm / 11,825 km||4,260 nm / 7,890 km|| 5,990 nm / 11,090 km|
Winglets: 6,310 nm / 11,690 km
| 3,255 nm / 6,028 km|
Winglets: 3,575 nm / 6,621 km
|5,625 nm / 10,418 km|
|767 Unit Cost (2013)||_||_||_||US$185.8M||US$185.8M||–|
|Variant||767 200||767 200ER||767 300||767 300ER||767 300F||767 400ER|